The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was Köppen climate classification originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system, in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying biological diversity and the potential effects on it of climate changes. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.
The field of Complex Networks has emerged as an important area of science to generate novel insights into nature of complex systems. The application of the theory to Climate Science is a young and emerging field.
To identify and analyze patterns in global climate, scientists model the climate data as Complex Networks.
Unlike most of the real-world networks in which nodes and edges are well defined, nodes in climate networks are identified with the spatial grid points of underlying global climate data set, which is defined arbitrarily and can be represented at various resolutions. Two nodes are connected by an edge depending on the degree of statistical dependence between corresponding pairs of time-series taken from climate data, on the basis of similarity shared in climatic variability.,,
The climate network approach enables novel insights into the dynamics of the climate system over many spatial scales.,
Construction of Climate Networks
Depending upon the choice of nodes and/or edges, climate networks may take many different forms, shapes, sizes and complexities.
Tsonis et al introduced the field of complex networks to climate. In their model, the nodes for the network were constituted by a single variable (500 hPa) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets. In order to estimate the edges between nodes, correlation coefficient at zero time lag between all possible pairs of nodes was estimated. A pair of nodes was considered to be connected, if their correlation coefficient is above a threshold of 0.5.
Beyond establishing whether or not viticulture can even be sustained in an area, the climatic influences of a particular area goes a long way in influencing the type of grape varieties grown in a region and the type of viticultural practices that will be used. The presence of adequate sun, heat and water are all vital to the healthy growth and development of grapevines during the growing season. Additionally, continuing research has shed more light on the influence of dormancy that occurs after harvest when the grapevine essentially shuts down and reserves its energy for the beginning of the next year's growing cycle.
Innovation is a new idea, or more-effective device or process. Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs. This is accomplished through more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business models that are readily available to markets, governments and society. The term "innovation" can be defined as something original and more effective and, as a consequence, new, that "breaks into" the market or society.
While a novel device is often described as an innovation, in economics, management science, and other fields of practice and analysis, innovation is generally considered to be the result of a process that brings together various novel ideas in a way that they have an impact on society.
Business and economics
In business and economics, innovation can be a catalyst to growth. With rapid advancements in transportation and communications over the past few decades, the old world concepts of factor endowments and comparative advantage which focused on an area’s unique inputs are outmoded for today’s global economy. Economist Joseph Schumpeter, who contributed greatly to the study of innovation economics, argued that industries must incessantly revolutionize the economic structure from within, that is innovate with better or more effective processes and products, as well as market distribution, such as the connection from the craft shop to factory. He famously asserted that “creative destruction is the essential fact about capitalism”. In addition, entrepreneurs continuously look for better ways to satisfy their consumer base with improved quality, durability, service, and price which come to fruition in innovation with advanced technologies and organizational strategies.
In time series analysis (or forecasting) — as conducted in statistics, signal processing, and many other fields — the innovation is the difference between the observed value of a variable at time t and the optimal forecast of that value based on information available prior to time t. If the forecasting method is working correctly successive innovations are uncorrelated with each other, i.e., constitute a white noise time series. Thus it can be said that the innovation time series is obtained from the measurement time series by a process of 'whitening', or removing the predictable component. The use of the term innovation in the sense described here is due to Hendrik Bode and Claude Shannon (1950) in their discussion of the Wiener filter problem, although the notion was already implicit in the work of Kolmogorov.
Innovation is a subscription-based magazine, compiling recent developments in the area of research in Singapore and globally. The format and style is designed to be accessible to an "educated layperson", and also includes relevant fields such as patenting. The magazine is jointly published by the National University of Singapore and World Scientific.
To date, local Singaporean companies such as the Defence, Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) and academia have been featured in the magazine.
Key Editorial Columns
Aside from the cover story, each magazine generally has the following columns:
Features - Includes recent global developments in research. The latest publication includes an article on battery alternatives by Peter Harrop.
In Brief - News and innovations from all disciplines
Industry Updates - A compilation of important industry developments
Viewpoint - Personal opinions regarding recent issues, by leaders in corporations
Spotlight - Profiling of personalities in the international research and business community
Around 10% of the hi-tech companies established in Israel over the past year develop climate technologies, according to the ClimateTech report published by the Israel InnovationAuthority, in collaboration with the PLANETech community ... Climate innovation is not just an important ...
ImpactHypothesis was introduced by the PLANETech innovation community, which provides knowledge and implementation assistance to startups targeting climate change ...IsraelInnovationInstitute’s PLANETech offers a new tool to evaluate the impact of climate-change technologies.
Trane Technologies plc (NYSE.TT), a global climate innovator, has been named the winner of the Business TransformationAward, as announced at this year’s event ... Trane Technologies has long been an industry leader in sustainability, and in 2020 spun-off its industrial businesses to focus on climate innovation.
Thousands of farmers in Niger have received drought resistant seeds, livestock feed, fertilizers, as well as other services and coaching to adopt innovative farming technics that have improved their productivity through the CommunityActionProject for ClimateResilience and the Climate Smart Agriculture Support project.
"In order to meet the Commonwealth's ambitious climate goals, which include net zero emissions by 2050, we will need to find innovative and cost-effective ways to decarbonize our existing buildings," said MassCEC InterimCEOJennifer Daloisio ... and the fight against climate change.
H&M aims to be climate positive by 2040. Kevin Frayer/Getty Images H&M group is aiming to use 100% sustainable materials by 2030 and be climate positive by 2040 ... This article is part of a series called "Partners for a Sustainable Future," profiling innovative alliances that are driving real progress in sustainability.
“Climate change is no longer a far-off problem;it is happening here, it is happening now.” ... In 2015, most of the world’s leaders met in Paris to agree on a new set of goals to tackle climate change ... But, ultimately, it’s something we must do, and with the right kind of innovation and cooperation, we can get there ... How to Avoid a Climate Disaster.
Third, education can be more responsive in producing experts, innovators, and leaders with the skills to tackle climate change and other related development challenges ... innovators of tomorrow with the skills to address climate change and nurture the long-term health of our planet.
A climate campaigner is walking 400 miles from London to Glasgow to raise awareness of climate change ahead of Cop26 ... “Regular people in Britain are actually taking charge (of climate change), making changes in their personal life, their communities are changing in the way they eat, the way they buy and innovate.” Daily Digest Newsletter.
Climate tech, a term encompassing everything from electric vehicles to battery innovation to space meat, is not only the key to saving Earth and humanity, but also a lucrative investment opportunity, according to Bill Gates ... However, just like those “Big Tech” success stories, climate tech is a long game—and it’s also risky.
CMI) announced today it has been accepted into two influential groups advocating for climate action ahead of the global COP26 climate summit in Glasgow, Scotland (U.K.) starting Oct ... “So, we want to dedicate our innovation, our talent, our resources, and our investments reducing our impact on the climate.
For Cherrie Atilano, founder and chief executive officer or AGREA Agricultural SystemsInternationalInc., sustainability, among others, is about utilizing innovations that are climate friendly and climate resilient ... effective and innovative sustainability initiatives,” she added.