The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was Köppen climate classification originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system, in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying biological diversity and the potential effects on it of climate changes. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.
The field of Complex Networks has emerged as an important area of science to generate novel insights into nature of complex systems. The application of the theory to Climate Science is a young and emerging field.
To identify and analyze patterns in global climate, scientists model the climate data as Complex Networks.
Unlike most of the real-world networks in which nodes and edges are well defined, nodes in climate networks are identified with the spatial grid points of underlying global climate data set, which is defined arbitrarily and can be represented at various resolutions. Two nodes are connected by an edge depending on the degree of statistical dependence between corresponding pairs of time-series taken from climate data, on the basis of similarity shared in climatic variability.,,
The climate network approach enables novel insights into the dynamics of the climate system over many spatial scales.,
Construction of Climate Networks
Depending upon the choice of nodes and/or edges, climate networks may take many different forms, shapes, sizes and complexities.
Tsonis et al introduced the field of complex networks to climate. In their model, the nodes for the network were constituted by a single variable (500 hPa) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets. In order to estimate the edges between nodes, correlation coefficient at zero time lag between all possible pairs of nodes was estimated. A pair of nodes was considered to be connected, if their correlation coefficient is above a threshold of 0.5.
Beyond establishing whether or not viticulture can even be sustained in an area, the climatic influences of a particular area goes a long way in influencing the type of grape varieties grown in a region and the type of viticultural practices that will be used. The presence of adequate sun, heat and water are all vital to the healthy growth and development of grapevines during the growing season. Additionally, continuing research has shed more light on the influence of dormancy that occurs after harvest when the grapevine essentially shuts down and reserves its energy for the beginning of the next year's growing cycle.
Innovation is a new idea, or more-effective device or process. Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs. This is accomplished through more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business models that are readily available to markets, governments and society. The term "innovation" can be defined as something original and more effective and, as a consequence, new, that "breaks into" the market or society.
While a novel device is often described as an innovation, in economics, management science, and other fields of practice and analysis, innovation is generally considered to be the result of a process that brings together various novel ideas in a way that they have an impact on society.
Business and economics
In business and economics, innovation can be a catalyst to growth. With rapid advancements in transportation and communications over the past few decades, the old world concepts of factor endowments and comparative advantage which focused on an area’s unique inputs are outmoded for today’s global economy. Economist Joseph Schumpeter, who contributed greatly to the study of innovation economics, argued that industries must incessantly revolutionize the economic structure from within, that is innovate with better or more effective processes and products, as well as market distribution, such as the connection from the craft shop to factory. He famously asserted that “creative destruction is the essential fact about capitalism”. In addition, entrepreneurs continuously look for better ways to satisfy their consumer base with improved quality, durability, service, and price which come to fruition in innovation with advanced technologies and organizational strategies.
In time series analysis (or forecasting) — as conducted in statistics, signal processing, and many other fields — the innovation is the difference between the observed value of a variable at time t and the optimal forecast of that value based on information available prior to time t. If the forecasting method is working correctly successive innovations are uncorrelated with each other, i.e., constitute a white noise time series. Thus it can be said that the innovation time series is obtained from the measurement time series by a process of 'whitening', or removing the predictable component. The use of the term innovation in the sense described here is due to Hendrik Bode and Claude Shannon (1950) in their discussion of the Wiener filter problem, although the notion was already implicit in the work of Kolmogorov.
Innovation is a subscription-based magazine, compiling recent developments in the area of research in Singapore and globally. The format and style is designed to be accessible to an "educated layperson", and also includes relevant fields such as patenting. The magazine is jointly published by the National University of Singapore and World Scientific.
To date, local Singaporean companies such as the Defence, Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) and academia have been featured in the magazine.
Key Editorial Columns
Aside from the cover story, each magazine generally has the following columns:
Features - Includes recent global developments in research. The latest publication includes an article on battery alternatives by Peter Harrop.
In Brief - News and innovations from all disciplines
Industry Updates - A compilation of important industry developments
Viewpoint - Personal opinions regarding recent issues, by leaders in corporations
Spotlight - Profiling of personalities in the international research and business community
The European Union’s adaptation strategy encourages member states to make their countries more resilient to the effects of climate change, and across the continent, researchers are looking for new and innovative ways to adapt to these expected extreme weather events.
Successfully achieving this goal means being innovative ... The latest example of this ”innovation” may actually surprise you. While climate change may be viewed by some as a single-party issue, the reality is quite different. of Maine’s Republicans are in favor of climate action, and ...
Drawing from lessons learned from a decade of funding over 100adaptation initiatives through the WCSClimateAdaptation Fund, the authors offer a simple framework that enables users to rapidly assess how—and by what means—climate change will require innovation beyond business-as-usual conservation practice.
They also pledged to continue fighting climate change and protecting the environment, increasing collaboration on technology and innovation, and advancing international peace and security ... The leaders announced the launch of several initiatives to coordinate action against climate change and biodiversity loss.
For her part, Merkel praised Guterres’s commitment to peaceful solutions to conflicts, climate protection and “innovative solutions to global problems” in his first term and thanked him for helping set up the COVAX facility to get COVID-19 vaccines to poorer countries.
“By combining government support with innovation expertise and access to investors and ...The government has partnered with technology accelerator Public to run a programme for startups developing innovative technologies that can help with some of the most pressing climate issues.
It is also a time of opportunities for India in areas such as the knowledge economy, de-risking and diversification of supply chains and climate change. “A country like India with its emphasis on education and innovation is well placed to take advantage of this transformation.”.
The competition received about 250 applications from 36 countries. Candidates were judged on three criteria. the potential impact on greenhouse gas emissions and the planet; the degree of technology innovation and novelty; and the likelihood of adoption ... Bloomberg chooses ECOncrete as climate innovator pioneer appeared first on ISRAEL21c. ....
... deeply divided world faces numerous conflicts, the growing impact of climate change, and a pandemic still circling the globe ... Merkel praised Guterres’ commitment to peaceful solutions to conflicts, climate protection and “innovative solutions to global problems” in his first term.
JohnStella, a SUNY-ESF professor and principal investigator on the National Science Foundation grant that funded the study, characterized the work as "groundbreaking" for the way it "combined several big datasets in an innovative way to understand how climate and water management interact to put these sensitive ecosystems at risk.".
“This project reflects an innovative approach to stormwater management that will improve how New Yorkers experience water, adapt to climate change and provide lasting environmental benefits to the waterways that have shaped the city for generations.” ... Arcadis. SOURCE. PRNewswire. Arcadis, NYC department of environmental protection Share.
"This project reflects an innovative approach to stormwater management that will improve how New Yorkers experience water, adapt to climate change and provide lasting environmental benefits to the waterways that have shaped the city for generations." ... As a result, New York Harbor is cleaner and healthier today than it has been since the Civil War.
These experiences also underscore the key role of cities as initiators, institution builders, and innovators that can translate climate solutions into actions ... innovative and responsive climate solutions that can contribute to building sustainable, inclusive, and livable cities.
“The UAE leadership has made a longstanding commitment to progressive climate action and recognizes the integral part that innovation plays in advancing the global green recovery,” said Abdulla Balalaa, executive director, Masdar City. “The COVID-19 pandemic has further underlined the links between public health and climate change.
“We share the urgency of governments, the industry, and our customers that innovation and action are essential to ensure datacentres are more sustainable and reduce carbon emissions quickly to address the impacts of global climate change,” said Abdel.