The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was Köppen climate classification originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system, in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying biological diversity and the potential effects on it of climate changes. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.
The field of Complex Networks has emerged as an important area of science to generate novel insights into nature of complex systems. The application of the theory to Climate Science is a young and emerging field.
To identify and analyze patterns in global climate, scientists model the climate data as Complex Networks.
Unlike most of the real-world networks in which nodes and edges are well defined, nodes in climate networks are identified with the spatial grid points of underlying global climate data set, which is defined arbitrarily and can be represented at various resolutions. Two nodes are connected by an edge depending on the degree of statistical dependence between corresponding pairs of time-series taken from climate data, on the basis of similarity shared in climatic variability.,,
The climate network approach enables novel insights into the dynamics of the climate system over many spatial scales.,
Construction of Climate Networks
Depending upon the choice of nodes and/or edges, climate networks may take many different forms, shapes, sizes and complexities.
Tsonis et al introduced the field of complex networks to climate. In their model, the nodes for the network were constituted by a single variable (500 hPa) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets. In order to estimate the edges between nodes, correlation coefficient at zero time lag between all possible pairs of nodes was estimated. A pair of nodes was considered to be connected, if their correlation coefficient is above a threshold of 0.5.
Beyond establishing whether or not viticulture can even be sustained in an area, the climatic influences of a particular area goes a long way in influencing the type of grape varieties grown in a region and the type of viticultural practices that will be used. The presence of adequate sun, heat and water are all vital to the healthy growth and development of grapevines during the growing season. Additionally, continuing research has shed more light on the influence of dormancy that occurs after harvest when the grapevine essentially shuts down and reserves its energy for the beginning of the next year's growing cycle.
Innovation is a new idea, or more-effective device or process. Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs. This is accomplished through more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business models that are readily available to markets, governments and society. The term "innovation" can be defined as something original and more effective and, as a consequence, new, that "breaks into" the market or society.
While a novel device is often described as an innovation, in economics, management science, and other fields of practice and analysis, innovation is generally considered to be the result of a process that brings together various novel ideas in a way that they have an impact on society.
Business and economics
In business and economics, innovation can be a catalyst to growth. With rapid advancements in transportation and communications over the past few decades, the old world concepts of factor endowments and comparative advantage which focused on an area’s unique inputs are outmoded for today’s global economy. Economist Joseph Schumpeter, who contributed greatly to the study of innovation economics, argued that industries must incessantly revolutionize the economic structure from within, that is innovate with better or more effective processes and products, as well as market distribution, such as the connection from the craft shop to factory. He famously asserted that “creative destruction is the essential fact about capitalism”. In addition, entrepreneurs continuously look for better ways to satisfy their consumer base with improved quality, durability, service, and price which come to fruition in innovation with advanced technologies and organizational strategies.
In time series analysis (or forecasting) — as conducted in statistics, signal processing, and many other fields — the innovation is the difference between the observed value of a variable at time t and the optimal forecast of that value based on information available prior to time t. If the forecasting method is working correctly successive innovations are uncorrelated with each other, i.e., constitute a white noise time series. Thus it can be said that the innovation time series is obtained from the measurement time series by a process of 'whitening', or removing the predictable component. The use of the term innovation in the sense described here is due to Hendrik Bode and Claude Shannon (1950) in their discussion of the Wiener filter problem, although the notion was already implicit in the work of Kolmogorov.
Innovation is a subscription-based magazine, compiling recent developments in the area of research in Singapore and globally. The format and style is designed to be accessible to an "educated layperson", and also includes relevant fields such as patenting. The magazine is jointly published by the National University of Singapore and World Scientific.
To date, local Singaporean companies such as the Defence, Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) and academia have been featured in the magazine.
Key Editorial Columns
Aside from the cover story, each magazine generally has the following columns:
Features - Includes recent global developments in research. The latest publication includes an article on battery alternatives by Peter Harrop.
In Brief - News and innovations from all disciplines
Industry Updates - A compilation of important industry developments
Viewpoint - Personal opinions regarding recent issues, by leaders in corporations
Spotlight - Profiling of personalities in the international research and business community
livelihoods, participatory urban planning and development, social cohesion and climate change adaptation. As part of this study, a Challenge Cup was held in Karachi to identify innovative community solutions to urban resilience challenges.
- Israel's Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation spoke about the two countries' complementary strengths at the closing ceremony. - Climate emerges as the countries' main shared challenge requiring cooperation on multiple fronts, especially energy, water, agriculture, and logistics.
This can help explain why carbon emissions are under more scrutiny than ever as we ramp up our efforts to avoid the catastrophic effects of climate change ...It’s increasingly used to help ensure we don’t create new problems while trying to solve climate change through innovation.
Winners and finalists were revealed this month, honoring clean technology, innovative corporate initiatives, new designs for cities and buildings, and other creative works that support the growth of positive social innovation, tackling social inequality, climate change, and public health crises.
Still, Van Hollen and other policymakers and climate change activists see hope closer to home... “The NationalClimateBankAct takes a model that’s been proven to work and creates an engine to drive innovative climate solutions that will help us build a greener economy and a better future for generations to come.”.
Mariam bint Mohammed Almheiri, Minister of ClimateChange and Environment (MOCCAE), official launched the venture by Circa Biotech ... “This agreement is part of the UAE’s ongoing drive to enhance food security and sustainability based on innovation, green development, and climate change mitigation.
DAVOS, Switzerland (AP) — At a small plaza in Davos, a picturesque Swiss town in the middle of the Alps, about 50 climate activists gathered on Thursday to bring attention to issues they said were largely ignored during this week's World Economic Forum meeting ... The forum did include many discussions about climate change and the environment.
The UK's first city mayor to declare a climate emergency has been questioned for flying nine hours to give a 14 minute speech about climate change ... "The mayor is right to identify cities across the globe as crucial sites of efficiency, scale, innovation and impact when it comes to fighting the climate crisis," she said.
The UK's first city mayor to declare a climate emergency has been questioned for flying nine hours to give a 14-minute speech about climate change ... "The mayor is right to identify cities across the globe as crucial sites of efficiency, scale, innovation and impact when it comes to fighting the climate crisis," she said.
... organisation working in the field of disaster risk reduction and climate change ... As we grapple with the global climate crisis, it is imperative for all of us to think of innovative ways, embrace technology as leverage; and empower people to thrive despite recurring disasters.
Founded in 2017 by the IIST and ISRO alumni Prateep Basu, Rashmit Singh Sukhmani, and Abhishek Raju, SatSure offers three main decision intelligence products, including SatSure Sparta — a platform for providing agriculture and climate-related insights as open innovation freemium ...