The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was Köppen climate classification originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system, in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying biological diversity and the potential effects on it of climate changes. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.
The field of Complex Networks has emerged as an important area of science to generate novel insights into nature of complex systems. The application of the theory to Climate Science is a young and emerging field.
To identify and analyze patterns in global climate, scientists model the climate data as Complex Networks.
Unlike most of the real-world networks in which nodes and edges are well defined, nodes in climate networks are identified with the spatial grid points of underlying global climate data set, which is defined arbitrarily and can be represented at various resolutions. Two nodes are connected by an edge depending on the degree of statistical dependence between corresponding pairs of time-series taken from climate data, on the basis of similarity shared in climatic variability.,,
The climate network approach enables novel insights into the dynamics of the climate system over many spatial scales.,
Construction of Climate Networks
Depending upon the choice of nodes and/or edges, climate networks may take many different forms, shapes, sizes and complexities.
Tsonis et al introduced the field of complex networks to climate. In their model, the nodes for the network were constituted by a single variable (500 hPa) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets. In order to estimate the edges between nodes, correlation coefficient at zero time lag between all possible pairs of nodes was estimated. A pair of nodes was considered to be connected, if their correlation coefficient is above a threshold of 0.5.
Beyond establishing whether or not viticulture can even be sustained in an area, the climatic influences of a particular area goes a long way in influencing the type of grape varieties grown in a region and the type of viticultural practices that will be used. The presence of adequate sun, heat and water are all vital to the healthy growth and development of grapevines during the growing season. Additionally, continuing research has shed more light on the influence of dormancy that occurs after harvest when the grapevine essentially shuts down and reserves its energy for the beginning of the next year's growing cycle.
Innovation is a new idea, or more-effective device or process. Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs. This is accomplished through more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business models that are readily available to markets, governments and society. The term "innovation" can be defined as something original and more effective and, as a consequence, new, that "breaks into" the market or society.
While a novel device is often described as an innovation, in economics, management science, and other fields of practice and analysis, innovation is generally considered to be the result of a process that brings together various novel ideas in a way that they have an impact on society.
Business and economics
In business and economics, innovation can be a catalyst to growth. With rapid advancements in transportation and communications over the past few decades, the old world concepts of factor endowments and comparative advantage which focused on an area’s unique inputs are outmoded for today’s global economy. Economist Joseph Schumpeter, who contributed greatly to the study of innovation economics, argued that industries must incessantly revolutionize the economic structure from within, that is innovate with better or more effective processes and products, as well as market distribution, such as the connection from the craft shop to factory. He famously asserted that “creative destruction is the essential fact about capitalism”. In addition, entrepreneurs continuously look for better ways to satisfy their consumer base with improved quality, durability, service, and price which come to fruition in innovation with advanced technologies and organizational strategies.
In time series analysis (or forecasting) — as conducted in statistics, signal processing, and many other fields — the innovation is the difference between the observed value of a variable at time t and the optimal forecast of that value based on information available prior to time t. If the forecasting method is working correctly successive innovations are uncorrelated with each other, i.e., constitute a white noise time series. Thus it can be said that the innovation time series is obtained from the measurement time series by a process of 'whitening', or removing the predictable component. The use of the term innovation in the sense described here is due to Hendrik Bode and Claude Shannon (1950) in their discussion of the Wiener filter problem, although the notion was already implicit in the work of Kolmogorov.
Innovation is a subscription-based magazine, compiling recent developments in the area of research in Singapore and globally. The format and style is designed to be accessible to an "educated layperson", and also includes relevant fields such as patenting. The magazine is jointly published by the National University of Singapore and World Scientific.
To date, local Singaporean companies such as the Defence, Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) and academia have been featured in the magazine.
Key Editorial Columns
Aside from the cover story, each magazine generally has the following columns:
Features - Includes recent global developments in research. The latest publication includes an article on battery alternatives by Peter Harrop.
In Brief - News and innovations from all disciplines
Industry Updates - A compilation of important industry developments
Viewpoint - Personal opinions regarding recent issues, by leaders in corporations
Spotlight - Profiling of personalities in the international research and business community
"These projects can make a difference in rising to the twin challenges of climate and biodiversity loss," said Henry M ... The award aims to renew efforts to tackle climate change in the post-pandemic era by pooling innovative solutions in the fields of green and low-carbon development.
“Nexans’ ambitions and strategy are fully aligned with the EIB’s priorities on climate, environment and innovation. “For the EIB, supporting industries taking action to address the climate emergency is key ... The financing will help the company upscale innovations at its ...
African governments have been urged to invest more on climate change to protect the continent of the effects of the menace ... “The public must really be involved in the discourse on climate change and journalists and the media must help look for and propagate innovations on climate change,” Dr Mayaki.
The young generation holds the key to tackling global climate change but needs support from governments to unlock the intellectual power needed to innovate and develop solutions, concluded the panellists at the first session of the day, called ‘Together in Pursuit of a Sustainable Future’.
“Farmers issues are on my heart and I believe that sustainable agriculture, and a targeted set of innovations, the Farm Requirements can help farmers produce better crops, adapt to climate change, increase their productivity, set goals to achieve their sustainability performance ...
Berlin, 26.11.2021 – For the 28th time, the national TOP100 competition is choosing the most innovative German mid-sized companies ... The jury of experts from business, academia, media and politics scored it an A+ in the following categories Top management External focus Processes and organisation Climate for innovation.
The government is committed to promoting climate adaptation activities to enhance agricultural production in the country, he said ... He said the government will be working with the private sector, and with assistance from the GreenClimate Fund, to establish a multi-million-dollar Green Fund to support our climate adaptation interventions.
Climate activist Hania Imran urged students to spread the message ... Meanwhile, representatives from the environment and climate change unit of UNDP attended the event and interacted with the students to learn more about the innovative plastic waste recycling solutions on display.
... humanitarian response and to guide future challenges; Review best practices, innovative approaches, search for Africa’s solutions in addressing climate change in the humanitarian space; and increase advocacy on AfricanHumanitarianAgency to partners and donors.
"Grasshopper is honoured to play a role in providing Romania with the latest clean energy infrastructure innovation and to support Romania and Europe in combating climate change, the greatest challenge facing our world today," Grasshopper EnergyCEOAzeem M.
This is a pioneering breakthrough in the industry to develop professional and standardized mining facilities, which are capable of operating at optimal levels under various climate conditions and linking up with a range of power supplies supported by the group’s proprietary innovations.
The company expects that by gradually replacing electricity from fossil generation, from own production as well as purchase agreements, and scaling innovative, climate-friendly technologies to an industrial scale, its electricity consumption in Europe will increase from the ...
How the UK started the climate crisis ...Boris Johnson will soon take on the role of the bombastic host at the UN's climate conference in Glasgow ... Despite this relatively small footprint, many of these communities have pioneered innovative and inclusive approaches to tackling the climate emergency.
The province has reached out to construction companies and engineering and design firms with “requests for qualifications,” to seek out new innovations to “rebuild better than it was.”. “Our infrastructure will be rebuilt to withstand the new climate realities that we find ourselves in,” Fleming said ... .