The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was Köppen climate classification originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system, in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying biological diversity and the potential effects on it of climate changes. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.
The field of Complex Networks has emerged as an important area of science to generate novel insights into nature of complex systems. The application of the theory to Climate Science is a young and emerging field.
To identify and analyze patterns in global climate, scientists model the climate data as Complex Networks.
Unlike most of the real-world networks in which nodes and edges are well defined, nodes in climate networks are identified with the spatial grid points of underlying global climate data set, which is defined arbitrarily and can be represented at various resolutions. Two nodes are connected by an edge depending on the degree of statistical dependence between corresponding pairs of time-series taken from climate data, on the basis of similarity shared in climatic variability.,,
The climate network approach enables novel insights into the dynamics of the climate system over many spatial scales.,
Construction of Climate Networks
Depending upon the choice of nodes and/or edges, climate networks may take many different forms, shapes, sizes and complexities.
Tsonis et al introduced the field of complex networks to climate. In their model, the nodes for the network were constituted by a single variable (500 hPa) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets. In order to estimate the edges between nodes, correlation coefficient at zero time lag between all possible pairs of nodes was estimated. A pair of nodes was considered to be connected, if their correlation coefficient is above a threshold of 0.5.
Beyond establishing whether or not viticulture can even be sustained in an area, the climatic influences of a particular area goes a long way in influencing the type of grape varieties grown in a region and the type of viticultural practices that will be used. The presence of adequate sun, heat and water are all vital to the healthy growth and development of grapevines during the growing season. Additionally, continuing research has shed more light on the influence of dormancy that occurs after harvest when the grapevine essentially shuts down and reserves its energy for the beginning of the next year's growing cycle.
Innovation is a new idea, or more-effective device or process. Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs. This is accomplished through more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business models that are readily available to markets, governments and society. The term "innovation" can be defined as something original and more effective and, as a consequence, new, that "breaks into" the market or society.
While a novel device is often described as an innovation, in economics, management science, and other fields of practice and analysis, innovation is generally considered to be the result of a process that brings together various novel ideas in a way that they have an impact on society.
Business and economics
In business and economics, innovation can be a catalyst to growth. With rapid advancements in transportation and communications over the past few decades, the old world concepts of factor endowments and comparative advantage which focused on an area’s unique inputs are outmoded for today’s global economy. Economist Joseph Schumpeter, who contributed greatly to the study of innovation economics, argued that industries must incessantly revolutionize the economic structure from within, that is innovate with better or more effective processes and products, as well as market distribution, such as the connection from the craft shop to factory. He famously asserted that “creative destruction is the essential fact about capitalism”. In addition, entrepreneurs continuously look for better ways to satisfy their consumer base with improved quality, durability, service, and price which come to fruition in innovation with advanced technologies and organizational strategies.
In time series analysis (or forecasting) — as conducted in statistics, signal processing, and many other fields — the innovation is the difference between the observed value of a variable at time t and the optimal forecast of that value based on information available prior to time t. If the forecasting method is working correctly successive innovations are uncorrelated with each other, i.e., constitute a white noise time series. Thus it can be said that the innovation time series is obtained from the measurement time series by a process of 'whitening', or removing the predictable component. The use of the term innovation in the sense described here is due to Hendrik Bode and Claude Shannon (1950) in their discussion of the Wiener filter problem, although the notion was already implicit in the work of Kolmogorov.
Innovation is a subscription-based magazine, compiling recent developments in the area of research in Singapore and globally. The format and style is designed to be accessible to an "educated layperson", and also includes relevant fields such as patenting. The magazine is jointly published by the National University of Singapore and World Scientific.
To date, local Singaporean companies such as the Defence, Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) and academia have been featured in the magazine.
Key Editorial Columns
Aside from the cover story, each magazine generally has the following columns:
Features - Includes recent global developments in research. The latest publication includes an article on battery alternatives by Peter Harrop.
In Brief - News and innovations from all disciplines
Industry Updates - A compilation of important industry developments
Viewpoint - Personal opinions regarding recent issues, by leaders in corporations
Spotlight - Profiling of personalities in the international research and business community
... approaches as a sustainable alternative food systems uniting indigenous knowledge, farmer-driven and science-based innovation, and an ecosystem’s natural processes to cope with the climate crisis, to be recognized and prioritized in major strategic and policy interventions.
But over time, I slowly found my place, and given the climate emergency we are in, I decided to focus on sustainable consumption ... Kaye Aviso, and DSLU Vice President for Research and Innovation Dr. Raymond Tan, who is one of the top climate scientists in the world.
My panel focused on how technology and the need for innovation has pushed entrepreneurs into the startup ecosystem. But all of this in the background of an adverse economic climate — how sustainable is it?Concerns around current economic conditions made their way into a lot ...
HUGO MARTIN Los Angeles Times... "I'm hoping to stay here for a while," she said ... People are also reading… ... Gov ... The legislation could create at least 1.5 million jobs nationwide by 2030, primarily in the manufacturing industry, according to a study by EnergyInnovationPolicy & Technology, a nonpartisan energy and climate policy think tank ... .
Chief ScientistAARI gave a detailed briefing to Secretary Agriculture about the ongoing research activities in the agricultural sector and said that agricultural scientists have brought innovation in the agricultural research process to deal with the harmful effects of climate change, which are getting encouraging results.
"We have had, and continue to have an ideal and unprecedented climate for both developing and funding tech startups. The kind of businesses that offer innovative products and services we couldn't have even imagined pre-pandemic," he added ... To 1 p.m. PST using ViVYD platform, with all new tracks that tackle the different stages of innovation ... ....
The brick was an innovation of Shao Wen-cheng (邵文政), a lecturer in the university’s ...Material health, product circularity, clean air and climate protection, water and soil stewardship, and social fairness, the Cradle to Cradle Products InnovationInstitute’s Web site says.
His son Mark Isbell has continued his family's tradition, transitioning to more climate-conscious farming practices ... Isbell Farms' practices show that battling climate change is about innovation ... It can be burdensome on farmers who may not be able to afford to make major infrastructure changes geared toward climate change.
Other concerns center on the greenhouse gas emissions of the chemical recycling process and, in the case of turning plastics into fuels, burning the end products, and whether those climate costs are less than those caused by creating virgin plastic. Meanwhile, innovators of all ...
This fair is taking place after a gap of two years due to the global lockdown during the Covid-19 pandemic. ... Kamat ... The G20 conference will focus on various subjects including post-pandemic economic recovery, renewable energy, climate change, innovation and technology, the evolving global security scenario and India-Latin American relations ... .
Bill Gates discussed climate tech and the inflation reduction act on a recent podcast. Gates said he hasn't given away his fortune because "innovation is not just a check-writing process." ... Gates also pointed to the InflationReductionAct as a second example of how climate tech innovation is "not just purely a financial thing."Story continues.
... companies working in the field of climate technology from Africa and around the world, with the aim of stimulating and encouraging innovative and sustainable digital and technological solutions to promote climate action and facing the resulting economic and social repercussions.
Recently, the UAE announced its second nationally determined contribution (NDC) as an ambitious response to the GlasgowClimate Pact, an outcome of the UN Climate ChangeConference (COP26) ... Offense means building new low-carbon businesses, scaling up nature-based climate solutions such as reforestation efforts, and employing R&D for innovation.
Climate change will never be ...Gates, the fifth richest person in the world, has long publicized his interest in bringing the climate crisis under control—by writing a book titled How to Avoid a Climate Disaster, advocating for green innovation, and investing in the space himself.
This innovative offering will help customers achieve better economic performance through enhanced climate action including measuring, monitoring, and reporting impact, proactively working to limit climate incidents, and improving response times when detecting issues.“We are ...